When Was League Of Nations Formed | League Of Nations Aims | League Of Nations Covenant | League Of Nations Permanent Members | League Of Nations History |
League Of Nations Covenant (UN): The horrors of World War I, the countless casualties, the enormous loss of property, and the unbearable financial woes of both the victors and the victors, forced the world to look for alternatives to war to end the war. In the history of civilization, man or people have taken war as the only way to prove their superiority and establish dominance. One of the innumerable discoveries of the Renaissance was the discovery of galaxies and their application.
League Of Nations History
Europe proves its superiority over the rest of the world with the help of Gaelbarus. But just as it is not possible to win people’s hearts by showing strength, one war becomes the cause of another new war. Therefore, the League of Nations was formed to establish mutual peace in order to eliminate mutual differences, which was claimed to be somewhat able to change the system that had been in place for so long. Until now, war has been seen as an inexhaustible weapon in the hands of the state.
Now it is considered to be a symbol of barbarism in human history. In other words, the primary purpose of the league was to make the war-loving minds of the people peaceful. This task was not very easy. Because, by transforming the long-cherished mentality of the people, the League wanted to start the yajna to free them from the primitive of the bloodstream.
League Of Nations Covenant
League Of Nations Aims: The members of the league did not compose the instructions of the league by agreement or declaration in separate corners. Her womb was the subject of the Treaty of Versailles. There was another reason behind the birth of the League through the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. But in the beginning, there was a general idea about the league in different corners of different states.
As a result, the League was formed as part of the Treaty of Versailles because of their skepticism about their commitment to accepting the League and following its instructions. In addition, there was skepticism about the rationale between the warring parties when they signed the treaty at the end of a horrific war many thought that as the environment cooled over time, it would be helpful to resolve all issues through negotiations. Again, the victorious states will be able to sue the League for their lack.
A preamble is attached at the beginning of the League’s instructions. It states that the main goal of the League is to establish peace around the world and to protect everyone. In order to do that, it is the duty of every state to abide by the terms of their signed agreement and not to fight under any circumstances. For this reason, more than one paragraph was added to the instructions. As stated in Article 10, each member state must protect itself if attacked by a foreign state and the task of the League is to protect the geographical boundaries of each member state and help them maintain their political independence.
Article 12 states that in the event of a dispute between the member states at any time, they shall refer the matter to the League Council for resolution. They will not take up arms in any way for at least three months after the council’s decision is announced.
Article 16 states that if a state fights in defiance of the League’s directives, it will be assumed that the war is being waged against every member state of the League. As a result, all financial and trade relations with the belligerent state will be severed. The highest body of the league, its council, will take on the responsibility of conducting the war. Article 22 states that the League will provide fair pay for the labor of women, men, and children.
When Was League Of Nations Formed: American Sentiment
The formation of the League is generally regarded as the culmination of a new chapter in the history of mankind in America. This is a wonderful manifestation of spirituality and morality in human history. The Americans began to dream of rebuilding Europe after the catastrophe through the League. Because, for the first time, America has the opportunity to enter the realm of world politics. This is the first time in the modern world that the world community has had the opportunity to exchange views. At the first general meeting of the League in 1920, 42 member states joined. But Germany was not allowed to join and the United States did not accept the League membership.
Although the League was the brainchild of US President Woodrow Wilson and played a significant role in ending World War II, the US Congress did not approve the US proposal to join the League. For a long time, the main point of US foreign policy was to stay away from the politics of the outside world. That did not change in 1920. Since the Versailles Treaty was not ratified by the US Senate, it was not possible to join the League. Therefore, from its inception, the League was deprived of the support of the United States, which was far from the most powerful European diplomacy in the world at that time.
America’s credibility in Europe is greatly diminished by the lack of a corner of America with the League. The League’s guidelines stated that each state would show leniency in maintaining mutual relations. But if the US position is specified, there is a fear in the minds of the French. France’s main statement in the 1920s was that the Paris Peace Accord had established stability in Europe. That situation cannot be changed in the name of defense.
Interestingly, in the 1930s, France’s attitude towards Germany was quite soft, but Hitler, the new ruler of Germany, changed the so-called European status quo. Gradually the membership of the league began to increase. 51 in 1921; In 1932 it was 57 and in 1934 it was 60.
League Of Nations Aims And Functions
League Of Nations Covenant: From its inception, the League was not just a forum. Intervening in a number of important matters in the early years enhanced the prestige of the League. In 1921, the League established a permanent international tribunal in The Hague, the Netherlands. In the same year, the invading Serbian army was forced to leave Albania by the League.
When Italy clashed with Greece in 1923 and besieged the island of Corfu, a new war broke out. With the timely intervention of the League, the dispute was settled. In 1923 the League resolved at least three financial issues. For example, the League took full responsibility for the financial restructuring of Austria and Hungary; One million Greek refugees from Turkey and East Thrace are properly resettled in Greece. The resolution of the border conflict between Greece and Bulgaria in 1925 was one of the major achievements of the League.
In 1926, however, the League was plunged into a crisis. The fierce rivalry between Brazil and Spain for a seat on the Council has affected the future of the League. Both Brazil and Spain threatened to withdraw from the league. However, in 1926, Germany joined the League and won seats on the Council. The League seemed to have reached its full potential with the inclusion of Germany. Similarly, in 1934, Soviet Russia was granted membership in the League.
In the first decade of the League’s tenure, two things happened that paved the way for the establishment of world peace. One was the Treaty of Paris (1928), a joint venture between French Foreign Minister Massie Bryand and US Secretary of State Kellogg. This was the core of the agreement. While acknowledging the right of member states to self-defense, they also pledged to renounce war. The signatory states are in favor of resolving any dispute in the negotiating room.
The other was the formation of a European Federal Union (1930) within the constitution of the Brianized League. Europe was then in the throes of a recession. The financial crisis that started in Germany has engulfed Europe and the world. Brian suggested that maintaining political stability and building mutual trust between nations was essential as a prerequisite for financial restructuring. Because every state is quite aggressive about its own defense in the post-war period. According to Brian, a reduction in armaments would go a long way in boosting trade. At that time, there was a feeling of economic nationalism among the states in Europe.
That attitude became more intense during the war. That is, financial matters are practically driven by politics. Notably, this problem of economic nationalism started a new world war. Therefore, Brian’s proposal was a significant step towards a comprehensive and balanced financial restructuring of Europe. Brian remarked that just as there is a difference of opinion between the different states in Europe, there is also a difference of opinion in the management of world affairs. This is why it is difficult to take any just action. If this problem is not resolved properly, unrest will continue.
The problem will be solved through proper use of labor, increase in industrial production, proper marketing of products, and expansion of the market. In other words, within the framework of the League, the bilateral and multilateral problems of the European countries will be solved and this organization will be formed for the purpose of joint progress. In doing so, Brian also made it clear that state sovereignty would not be undermined or fragmented.
The collapse of the league
Although the weakness of the league was evident in the 1930s, its seeds were sown in 1919-20. It turned out that the League had failed to provide the necessary funds for the reconstruction of the war-torn states of Eastern and Central Europe. Although the United States withdrew from world politics, the US dollar was the only hope for the restructuring of Europe. The US government created the American Relief Administration for this work only 114: 5 million dollars. Price grain sent to Europe. This activity was led by Herbert Hoover.
Hoover later became president. His interest in ensuring food supply was not less. But he could not forget politics. So he was not as interested in helping Hungary as he was in helping the capitalist state of Austria. Because in Hungary, the Communists were rising under the leadership of Bela Kun.
It was during this time that Hoover invented new ways to maintain the food supply system. For example, in exchange for importing eggs and meat from Poland, Austria sent its artifacts. Similarly, Yugoslavia gave him wheat in exchange for oil imports from Poland, and Poland received coal from Germany in exchange for its potato exports.
Brian died in 1932. It is undeniable that his contribution to the formation of the Lacono Treaty and the European federal structure was significant. His death paved the way for a new diplomat to enter the fray and develop new ideas. From this point on, the League was plunged into a period of crisis, and as a result, it eventually collapsed.
In this way, the abolition of the international framework and the rule of law came to an abrupt end. It has been observed that a relentless attempt to break the international treaty is becoming increasingly popular. Efforts to establish world peace were suddenly thwarted by the desire for foreign aggression.
All the issues that were emphasized in the Treaty of Versailles fell into disrepair overnight. Not only in Europe but also in Asia and Africa. The league collapsed for two main reasons:
(1) The importance of the League failed to be fully realized due to the absence of the United States.
(2) For this reason, although successful in resolving minor issues, the League has not been able to use its full strength in resolving the major crisis, nor has the acceptability of the League been developed. As a result, in many cases, the members of the League did not have the power to put into action the enlightening and promising promises they had made verbally. This makes it impossible for Maria and Abyssinia to resolve the matter.
League Of Nations Permanent Members
Article 8 of the League’s directives state that arms should not be placed in corners where states need to defend themselves. For this reason, an international surveillance system will also be set up. The League entrusts its council with the task of disseminating the necessary procedures for disarmament. In this context, the British Prime Minister warned that lasting peace could not be established unless the states were fully committed to disarmament. Similarly, it will not be possible to keep Germany unarmed. Several commissions are also constituted under the direction of this paragraph.
But even after long talks, it was not possible to find a solution. France is largely to blame for the league’s failure. Because in no way did France agree to reduce its arsenal or army. Of course, France’s argument is no less important in this case. In 1919, Britain and the United States entered into an agreement with France pledging to help France in any future German invasion. But the US Senate did not ratify the agreement.
As the United States refused to comply with its obligations, so did Britain. In the role of these two states, France has become increasingly frustrated and unwilling to reduce its military might in any way. France’s fears were further heightened when Germany reluctantly agreed to the question of military disarmament under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
Since the German fear of France could not be reduced in any way, the competition for arms in Europe could not be eliminated. The Treaty of Locarno in 1925 paved the way for British military aid when France was somehow attacked by an external enemy. During this time, relations between Germany and France also improved considerably. In this environment, new disarmament initiatives began. Initiatives were also taken to convene a disarmament conference.
Following the signing of the Locarno Agreement, Germany repeatedly demanded that other powers limit their arsenals. Under these circumstances, in December 1925, the League Council formed a Preparatory Commission for the Disarmament Conference. The commission first met in May 1926. Germany, Soviet Russia, and the United States were added to the commission. It is clear that the League was keen to start a disarmament process as a whole.
But the work did not go that way. After lengthy negotiations, in March 1927, the British and French delegations presented a draft disarmament proposal.
The French understood only a reduction in the number of troops in the sense of disarmament. But British, German and US envoys demanded a reduction in the number of people educated in all types of military education. The German delegation demanded that the number of armaments be determined on the basis of the limits set by the Treaty of Versailles. In this context, the French proposed a reduction in the amount of state spending that was being allocated to the military.
But to the British and American delegates, the proposal to limit the number of armaments seemed to be on paper. In the case of the navy, the French and Italian delegates demanded that the full tonnage of the navy be specified. But the British and American representatives were in favor of setting different limits for different classes of ships. In other words, there was no consensus in the commission.
Annoyed by such delays, only the United Kingdom and Japan agreed to a separate conference of signatories to the Washington agreement. The three powers met in Geneva in June 1927. In pursuance of the Washington Naval Agreement, US envoys proposed limiting the strength of the navy. But Britain has said it wants to be a naval force in proportion to its vast empire. As the objectives and interests of the three states are different, the discussion naturally becomes futile. According to the historian Carr, that was the first public obstacle to disarmament.
The failure of the Geneva Convention disappointed the delegates to the 1927 General Assembly. In 1929 the situation changed somewhat. When Herbert Hoover is the new President of the United States and the Prime Minister of the New Labor Party of Britain. Ramsey Nelonald has re-emerged on the question of disarmament. It was in their interest that a conference on disarmament was convened in London in January 1930.
In addition to Britain and the United States, France, Italy, and Japan also participated in another conference convened to discuss naval power. France to implement the decommissioning from the beginning. Demands the delimitation of air and sea caps, including navy and land. In this discussion, although Britain showed a lot of leniency regarding the navy, France was not willing to do so. This time in France, France presented its argument in Geneva. After lengthy discussions at various levels, it was possible to reach a consensus in April. And the signatory states also agreed to keep the Washington naval agreement in force for another five years.
After these initiatives, the first international disarmament conference was convened in 1932. The conference was attended by 64 countries, including the United States and Russia. Russia, however, was not a member of the League. At the conference, France proposed the formation of an international military force under the auspices of the League. Many of the members understood the rationale behind the French proposal. They also believed that the league would be able to play a more effective role in the future if such a corner force was formed.
But the proposal was sent to the cold room. In its place, a proposal was made to an expert team aimed at preventing the proliferation of the most ‘dangerous’ weapons. But the problem is with the definition of a ‘dangerous weapon’. There was no consensus. Several months later, the United States announced plans to destroy one-third of all weapons stored there. At the same time, many states are proposing to destroy heavy artillery, armored vehicles, chemical weapons, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
These issues continue to be discussed, and at the same time, the arms race in Europe begins. The problem was serious. The question is, is disarmament possible without protection? Again, is security possible without disarmament? Of course, through these talks, Germany gained on important issues. Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s arsenal was greatly reduced. In 1932, virtually all sanctions were lifted from Germany. Since Europe as a whole could not be emptied of its arsenal, there was no reason to shrink Germany’s arsenal. Eventually, Britain, France, and the United States gradually allowed Germany to build up its arsenal.
At the Disarmament Conference in 1932, Germany regained its full status in the European Union, and at the same time, Germany’s internal politics began to change. In 1933, the National Socialists withdrew Germany from both the Disarmament Conference and the League. After that, they started a new competition for arms. Thus began the era of the fall of the League.
The League then failed to protect Abyssinia from Italian aggression. The smell of gunpowder in the air. In 1936, the British government began to rethink state security in the face of changing circumstances and felt the need to increase its armaments. For such a long time, the ideological rhetoric in favor of justice, policy, and peace was quickly forgotten by the state leaders. The time has come for a new history to be written in Europe.
League Of Nations History
Q. How many countries joined the League of Nations?
A. 48 countries had joined.
Q. How many countries attended the League of Nations?
A. The conference was attended by 64 countries.
Q. When did Japan leave the league?
A. March 1933
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