What Was Pearl Harbor Attack? Pearl Harbor Attack 1941 Full Fact, History

What Was Pearl Harbor Attack | Where Was Pearl Harbor Attack | Pearl Harbor Attack Japan | Facts On pearl Harbor Attack |

What Was Pearl Harbor Attack

The Washington Conference of 1921 established Japan’s naval power in the Pacific. From the beginning of the twentieth century, Japan failed to implement its policy of expanding its empire.

What Was Pearl Harbor Attack
Pearl Harbor Attack

Pearl Harbor Attack History

Japan’s domestic politics is also driven by the will of the military, so Japan adopts aggressive diplomacy. There were enough opportunities in front of him. Weak neighbors give him that opportunity. In addition, in 1932, Maria Odhikar and her subsequent demonstration of the incompetence of the international community, according to the League of Nations, made Japan even more aggressive. In 1939, on the eve of the outbreak of World War II, Hitler and Mussolini considered Japan as an ally, even the imperialist leaders of Europe. As a result, Japan became a major member of the global fascist alliance.

Naturally, Britain could not be happier with Japan’s strength. The attitude of Soviet Russia was similar. Britain feared its Indian colony. So as soon as the war started, Churchill of Britain asked US President Roosevelt to put pressure on Japan. But then the goal of US diplomacy was to show a flexible attitude towards Japan. However, Cordell Hull, the then US Secretary of State, was particularly upset when Japan issued an ultimatum to France on the question of Indochina’s withdrawal from the colony. The Ram-Berlin-Tokyo Axis power has already developed and that was another reason for the recent annoyance.

When France was defeated by Germany in Europe in the early stages of the war, Japanese troops entered Indochina. It turned out that Japan was particularly keen to implement its blueprint for expanding its empire. In light of the situation, the US State Department has decided that as long as Britain does not win the war in Europe, it is up to the US to show restraint towards Japan and maintain stability in the Pacific.

So after the Indochina incident, America did not express its views in any way. America also had other problems. President Roosevelt was very busy campaigning for the presidency. As a result, the US administration was hesitant about what appropriate policy should be adopted against Japan.

Pearl Harbor Attack: Japanese Preparation

Everyone knew that Japan’s internal politics had been developing under the shadow of the military for the past four decades. At the end of July 1940, a new government was formed in Japan, led by Konoye, with Tojo as Minister of Defense and Matsuoka as Foreign Minister. The primary goal of the new government was to resolve China’s problems and create a greater East Asia. There is no power left in Asia to defeat Japan. Although Britain was particularly concerned about its Indian colonies, its position on the battlefields of Europe was not good. Japan wanted to take advantage of this situation. He has already signed defense agreements with Germany and Italy.

Strong in that power, this time Japan * insisted on resolving its unresolved issues with Soviet Russia. In this way, the problem of China is turned into the problem of Greater East Asia. Because everyone knew that Japan’s entry into China meant going into direct conflict with Russia. Not only China but also Indochina is being targeted by Japan. Japan also knew that extending its military dominance to Indochina would make it easier for the then Dutch colony to annex Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia was rich in mineral oil. In order to implement this grand and long-term plan, Japan set out to use the Great War.

On September 4, 1940, Naei, Matsuoka, and Taejo met together in a meeting with naval officers. It was decided that Greater East Asia would be formed with the aim of replacing Japan through negotiations with Germany and Italy. The backbone of the greater East Asia will be Japan, Majuria and China centered on the former German-occupied islands, French Indochina, the Pacific Islands, Thailand, British Malay, Borneo, the Dutch colony of Southeast Asia, New Zealand, present-day He is a country according to India.

It is true that European politics had a special role to play in fulfilling this goal of Japan. Japan was particularly encouraged by the developments in Europe. The rise of Germany led to the colonization of Europe. Japan was sure that the powers would be weak. But that was ignorant of America’s attitude. But the driving force behind Japanese politics at the time was the Japanese leaders’ respect for Germany and their hatred of the Western world for their continued financial and moral support to China. Matsuoka had some personal arguments in favor of concluding defense agreements with Germany and Italy.

For example, the Germans and Italians living in the United States will demand that the government of that country not help China in any way, and will put pressure on Japan to show leniency.

 But by signing the Tripartite Treaty, Japan did not gain anything special in the real sense. Only Japan was accepted by Germany and Italy as the leading military power in East Asia. However, Article III of the treaty states that Germany and Italy will assist Japan if it is attacked by a non-warring party in Europe or by a non-Sino-Japanese conflict. It is understood that in the future if the United States invades Japan, those two powers will be on Japan’s side.

As we have already noted, it was a difficult task for the Roosevelt administration to take a hard line against Japan in 1940 because of American domestic politics. But Roosevelt’s re-election in November put an end to all hesitation and decided to take a hard line against Japan in the Pacific.

Japan-US Relations

In 1941, the direction of American diplomacy and foreign trade policy was the preservation of national security. In the eyes of the United States, the Axis Powers were anti-democratic, and the British-led Allies were anti-democracy.

Therefore, his main policy was to leave the relationship with Axis power. However, Roosevelt tried unsuccessfully to communicate directly with the Japanese emperor to avoid a possible war. Probably the Japanese army thwarted that attempt. In this situation, the US gradually increased the number of loans to China on easy terms and imposed various trade sanctions against Japan. For example, the supply of iron, steel, and high-quality mineral oil (called gasoline) was cut off. As a result, there was no delay in cracking down on US-Japanese diplomacy.

Meanwhile, from the beginning of the war, Japan and China, in addition to Southeast and South Asia, were rapidly gaining power. But in any case, America was not ready to take extreme action against Japan. His only goal is to keep the Pacific Ocean safe. At a recent meeting between Admiral Nomura, the Japanese ambassador to Washington, and the US Secretary of State, it was decided that the two countries would not encroach on each other’s foreign borders; One state will not interfere in the internal affairs of another state; Will not be biased in trade and will maintain stability in the Pacific. Japan, however, prayed for US support in maintaining its military might.

At the same time, Japan asked the United States to ratify the military and trade agreement that Japan had with the Wang Ching-wei government in Nanking, China. Similarly, Japan has asked the United States to look into the matter so that the Chinese government can ratify the agreement. Japan also claims that the United States must recognize that Japan’s progress in the southwestern part of the Pacific Ocean is in accordance with natural laws.

Accordingly, Japan’s right to procure mineral oil, tin, nickel, and natural rubber from the region must be recognized. The United States must also commit to defending the independence of the Philippines. It became clear that Japan was eager to establish its monopoly over China, including the Pacific. On the contrary, the fact that the US viewed Japan with suspicion has been proven by the behavior of the US intelligence forces.

The details of the important discussions that Cordell Hall was having with the Japanese ambassador, Nemura used to send sign language to Tokyo every day. American singers are able to decipher that language. The United States then realized that its military might in East Asia was very small in proportion to that of Japan. However, Nimura suggested a political solution to the US-China conflict. But the Japanese army did not want to understand anything except war.

The Japanese military pressured the government to grant Indochina a special opportunity to gain access to oil reserves in Southeast Asia. That was the pressure Japan exerted on America. In other words, the US was asked to give more benefits to Japan than Japan tried to get from China. Ensuring the supply of oil was essential for the sustainability of Japan’s dream of an empire. But it was not available peacefully in July 1941.

Churchill probably made the right guess about what Japan’s future goals might be. He was in favor of austerity measures in Japan. As a result, Roosevelt then accepted the joint US-British process in negotiating with Japan on the security of Asia and the Pacific. Although Roosevelt could not agree with the British imperialist ideology, he and Churchill finally signed a joint declaration on 12 August 1941. It is said in the manifesto that they are not interested in changing the map in any area against the will of the local people.

Defeating the Nazis is their only goal and only then will it be possible to open all the waterways of the world to all. This is called the Atlantic Charter. Cordell Hall and Nemura are in talks in Washington as Roosevelt and Churchill sign the declaration on the ship Augusta in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland.

Pearl Harbor Attack: Japan’s Strategy

But at the heart of the problem was China’s future. In the meantime, Japan had argued for self-defense, citing the occupation of Indochina by the French. Japan won the war. But the Japanese were furious because of the financial and trade sanctions imposed on them by Britain, the United States, and the Netherlands. On July 26, 1941, Japan occupied Indochina only in the United States

Japan's Strategy
Pearl Harbor Attack: Japan’s Strategy

All his assets were confiscated by the US administration. All trade relations with Japan were canceled. The next day Britain and its Dominions took the same step. America then became aware of Japan’s secret plans. The United States is convinced that Japan’s next target is Indonesia and Singapore. As a result, it is clear to the United States that a peaceful solution to China’s problems is not desirable for Japan.

In the midst of this tense situation, the Naei government collapsed in Japan on 16 October, and a new government was formed under the leadership of General Hideki Tojo. Taejo’s aggressive warlike attitude was not unknown. The new government’s proposals to the United States on November 20 called for at least temporary peace and stability in the Pacific.

On November 26, the United States invited Japan to sit down for talks, and the Japanese ambassador to Washington agreed. But Japan was well aware that it would not be able to achieve its goal through negotiations. He was then eager to win the military. During the talks, Japan decided that it would establish its own control over the Pacific. While the talks were underway in Washington, the Japanese navy was approaching Pearl Harbor, a U.S. naval base on the Pacific island of Hawaii.

It should be noted that Japan has been working for more than a decade to build an empire in Greater East Asia. On the one hand, his goal was to overthrow the government of Jiang Kaishek in China, to form a government friendly to Japan, and to remove Western powers from China. On the other hand, Russia was evicted from the Baikal Lake area. Achieving these two goals will certainly create problems for the US Navy. Therefore, in order to implement a larger military plan, the loss of US naval power in the early stages was a necessary task.

pearl harbor attack japan

As trade relations with the United States deteriorated, Japan’s main problem was the supply of its oil. Japan knew that it would be possible to secure oil supplies if it could conquer Southeast Asia and the southwestern Pacific. Japan focuses on the region, including the Kuriles, the Wake Islands, the Marshalls, the Bismarcks, the Timor, the Java, the Sumatra, the Malaya, and Burma. Did. But before occupying them, Japan considers it necessary to destroy US naval bases in the Hawaiian Islands. Japan’s plan was to quickly get the job done through a brief war and then reach a decision on its own terms at the negotiating table.

Pearl Harbor Attack
Pearl Harbor Attack

The United States will have to spend a considerable amount of time recovering from the damage caused to the US Navy in the Pacific. Japan will be able to strengthen its military position in East and Southeast Asia. This will make it easier for the US to counter-attack anywhere. It is noteworthy that the US military has not been able to gather any advance information about the Japanese military plan.

where was pearl harbor attack

On December 4, 1941, Japanese submarines suddenly attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor. The US Department of Defense was shocked by the suddenness of the attack, although many feared that the East Asia and Pacific region could heat up at any moment. The bomber struck shortly afternoon in front of a U.S. military base. The Japanese power was so overwhelmed by the invasion that on December 25, British-ruled Hong Kong surrendered to Japan. The Malay Archipelago was then annexed by Japan, and on 25 February 1942, Singapore was forced to surrender. In March, the Japanese conquered Indonesia from Holland. The Philippines surrendered to Japan on April 9

Gradually the Japanese forces started advancing towards the Indian subcontinent and in June 1942 they succeeded in occupying the territory of Burla. With this victory, Japan gained the power to destroy even the British colony, India. On the other hand, the conquest of the Pacific islands of Attu and Kiska by the American state. Alaska was targeted by Japanese forces. It turned out that the mainland of America had become a target of Japanese aggression.

Europe-centric through the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Great War spread to the Pacific and Asia. This attack greatly changed the future of the world. However, there were flaws in the Japanese plan for the attack on Pearl Harbor. Japan was convinced that under no circumstances would the US administration and public opinion agree to its participation in World War II. America will stick to its traditional policy of neutrality as it has distanced itself from the League of Nations.

But this time nothing like that happened. The attack quickly provoked the American people into nationalism and put pressure on the administration to educate Japan better. Second, by thwarting all Japanese ideas, the United States was able to quickly rebuild its navy and deploy its forces to Asia with all its military equipment. Japan, however, has been at war for the past few years. As a result, the logistics and army were not in his hands at that time in order to defeat a strong opponent. But America had everything because, by December 1941, not a single particle of its military power had been lost.

After the initial push, the US launched a massive offensive against Japan. The U.S. Navy defeated the Japanese navy, first on May 7, 1942, and then on the 11th Coral Sea Naval War, and again in June at Midway. Defeat in the Battle of Midway shattered all dreams of Japanese domination of the Pacific. In early 1943, the United States succeeded in occupying the Solomon Islands, the Florida Islands, and the Tulagi from Japan. As a result, as Australia became safer, so did the Japanese navy’s monopoly power, which had been in place since 1921.

The attack on Pearl Harbor is just one example of the recklessness of the Japanese warlords. From the beginning of 1941, Roosevelt sought direct communication with the Emperor of Japan to avoid a possible war. But the Japanese army chiefs thwarted that attempt. They did not want to deviate in any way from the empire they had planned for across East Asia.

As a result, despite repeatedly sitting at the negotiating table, the Japanese ambassador to Washington did not take any effective steps to avoid war. Details of the important talks that the US Secretary of State had with the envoy were sent daily to Tokyo by Japanese envoy Nemura in sign language. Realizing the daily news from Washington to Tokyo, the Japanese warlords were convinced that Japan’s future would be secure only if China could occupy it.

Japan needed mineral oil and it was only available after the Indochina annexation. As a result, Japan was desperate to occupy Southeast Asia. This was possible only when America played the role of an ally of Japan. But according to the rules of history, it was impossible. The day of the Pearl Harbor attack was marked by US President Roosevelt in American history as “a date which will live in infamy.” Because, since birth, America has not had to fall into such a situation at any time.

Facts On Pearl Harbor Attack

FAQs

Q. How long did the Pearl Harbor attack last?

A. The entire attack took only one hour and 15 minutes.

Q. How many Japanese died in pearl harbor?

A. 129 Japanese soldiers are reported to have been killed in Pearl Harbor and 29 Japanese aircraft were lost.

Q. How many nurses working at Pearl Harbor?

A. Of the 82 Army nurses working at three medical facilities in Hawaii on the day of the attack.

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