Treaty Of Versailles Explanation – Definition, Terms, Criticism, Facts | Iconic Info

Treaty Of Versailles Explanation

Treaty Of Versailles Explanation: The two provinces of Alsace and Laurent in the west had to be returned to France because they were unjustly taken away from France by Germany during the unification of Germany in 161 AD. The Saar Valley was temporarily bailed out of Germany to recover compensation for the entire war, including damage to the coal mines in northern France during the war. It was decided that the zone would remain under the management of the League of Nations for 15 years to collect compensation.

A referendum will be held in 15 years, and if that referendum rules in favor of annexation to Germany, Germany will have the right to purchase ownership of the French-controlled coal mines. (A referendum was held in 1935 to reconcile with Germany.) A similar referendum was held in the north to determine the fate of the province of Slezvig, which had been seized from Denmark after the war of 180 AD.

Treaty Of Versailles Explanation
Treaty Of Versailles Explanation

In that referendum, North Schleswig voted in favor of unification with Denmark and Central Schleswig with Germany. In addition, some small territories were given to Belgium. But the most deadly was the change of the eastern border From the eighteenth century onwards, Prussia gradually expanded its territory to the east, devouring parts of Palestine.

It was now decided that Germany would have to pay the price for the long-running atrocities against Poland. The whole of Western Prussia, including Posen, was annexed by the newly formed Poland. After a referendum, Upper Silesia was divided between Germany and Poland. Poland needed a seaport. That too was given to him. The German port city became a Free City under the Danzig League. The inhabitants of Danzig were all Germans.

However, considering Poland’s financial interests more important, it is given to Poland. A path was made from the mainland of Poland to enter Danzig. In history, this is called the Polish Corridor, and as a result, East Prussia became separated from the rest of Germany. Although the victorious statesmen recognized the inhabitants of Dan-Zig as German-speaking, they attached great importance to the inseparable financial relationship between Danzig and Poland and claimed that a seaport was deserved from Poland. For the same reason, the port of Memel was annexed to the newly formed state of Lithuania.

Treaty Of Versailles Lead To WW2

In Europe alone, Germany did not lose the vast territory of its former empire. All rights outside Europe were taken away from his colonies. Among these colonies was German South-West Africa which was given to South Africa. The German West African colonies of Cameroon and Togoland divided Britain and France, respectively. In German East Africa, (Tanganyika) gained Britain and other regions of Belgium. Africa with a population of about 12 million. Most of these colonies were annexed by Britain in various ways; The rest were taken by France and Belgium.

In the Pacific, German colonies were divided into Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. However, they did not get full ownership. All these were under the management of the league. Although war compensation was demanded from Germany, it did not compensate for the losses it had suffered. That is why Germany was not given a part of Czechoslovakia, inhabited by Austrians and Germans, by two terms of the treaty.

Germany was forced to recognize Austria’s independence and to ensure that Austria’s future would not be determined without the approval of the League. Similarly, Germany was forced to accept the independence of Czechoslovakia and its borders.

Other key elements of the Treaty of Versailles were the conditions for cash compensation, the demarcation of the Rhineland as a civilian territory, disarmament, and the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty by Germany. Germany was forced to accept responsibility for the war.

It was decided that Germany would be able to make military preparations in areas up to 30 miles on either side of the Rhine. The size of the German army was fixed at one million; Compulsory military education for his adults was also abolished; The German fleet had to be disbanded and all ships had to be surrendered to the victors.

For Germany to properly abide by all the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the German territory on the west bank of the Rhine was kept under the control of the victorious army for 15 years.

The Treaty Of Versailles: Criticism

Germany protested strongly against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. First, the German delegation was not allowed to attend the talks in Versailles, and all the terms of the treaty were unilaterally imposed on Germany by the victors. In other words, there was no system of mutual discussion between the warring parties in Versailles. The will of the victorious party forced defeated Germany to obey. The German delegation was allowed to observe the final draft of the treaty. They immediately protested the terms.

Germany claimed that the victors had violated their own right to justice. Because the war did not happen for the Germans, it happened because of the imperialist aggressive attitude of its reckless rulers. So the victors want to take the path of showing power without ensuring the rights of everyone to establish peace. How defeated Germany was punished was likely to have a significant impact on Germany’s future.

This is because the new constitution that was drafted in Germany was intended to establish a fully democratic structure and to pave the way for the rise of individuals or institutions in imperialist aggression. But these changes did not go unnoticed by the victorious side, and it was only ten years later that the results did not go well. British economist John Maynard Keynes was present at the Paris Peace Conference. But he left the meeting room angry with the behavior of the victor. Analyzing the workings of the peace process, Keynes wrote a critical book, The Economic Consequences of Peace, in 1919.

The war did not solve Germany’s problems. The victors wanted the defeat of Germany, not its destruction. Therefore, Germany which was founded in 1918 is united and strong according to 1914. It is a mistake to think that Germany’s military character, its aggressive attitude, and the crooked diplomacy of its ruling class made it the center of the problem in Europe. At the root of the problem was politics. Even in 1917, Germany was the main power in Europe.

Germany became stronger, especially in the post-revolutionary period, when European states seceded from the European Union and Britain always showed an impersonal attitude. Its population was six and a half crores whereas France had four crores. Germany was the richest in Europe in mineral resources, especially ore and coal. In addition, the pre-war balance maintained some control over Germany. But in 1918 that balance was struck. Russia is isolated from European politics, and Austria-Hungary is extinct. Only Italy and France survive, but they are tired of war and, above all, not wealthy according to Germany.

The Treaty of Versailles had some features that drove the politics and history of the next several years. For Germany, it was peace of mind. The Treaty of Versailles cannot be described as a treaty negotiated at the bilateral or multilateral level. It was a pact that forced the victor over the defeated enemy. Of course, in all the treaties that were signed in the world at the end of the war, one complaint is necessary. In Versailles, however, hatred of Germany was widespread and deep.

When Was The Treaty Of Versailles Signed

The draft agreement, however, was communicated to the German delegation in Versailles, and Germany was allowed to express its views. Some of Germany’s comments were also taken into account when concluding the agreement. The draft full agreement was handed over to the German delegation and they were instructed to sign it within five days. They were also unnecessarily insulted at the signing ceremony. On June 26, 1919, German envoys Hermann Muller and Johannes Bell signed a treaty at the palace of Emperor Louis XIV, where Bismarck established the German Empire in 181.

France avenged that incident. It seems that the arrogance and anti-German sentiment of the victorious diplomats gave rise to the idea that the Treaty of Versailles had been forcibly imposed on Germany. Their insanity is evident in the report prepared by the German delegation reviewing the terms of the agreement. In the words of the historian E. H. Carr, there was no need for such an attitude towards Germany.

The consequences of insulting Germany were not good and its psychological effects were felt elsewhere, including in Germany. The terms of the treaty were described by ordinary Germans as a forced treaty. As a result, the idea became entrenched throughout Germany that in the circumstances in which Germany was forced to sign the treaty, Germany was not obliged in principle to abide by the Treaty of Versailles.

Second, at the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the victors unwittingly forgot about the fourteen-point formula of US President Woodrow Wilson, even though Germany had disarmed on its basis. Wilson’s efforts have largely reduced the intensity of the violence between the two sides during the war. It was Wilson who proposed the formation of the League of Nations to prevent future war.

Similarly, the idea of ​​a neutral administration and an international labor organization to govern the German colonies at the end of the war came to his mind. However, there was no shortage of contradictions in the agreement. The action was taken only in the case of German colonies and not in others.

Treaty Of Versailles Germany Terms

Treaty Of Versailles Germany Terms
Treaty Of Versailles Germany Terms

(1) The Saar, an area of ​​850,000 Germans in the west of the German Empire, was separated from Germany for 15 years, claiming ownership of the coal mines alone.

(2) Although there was no political relationship with Poland for the last 750 years in Upper Silesia, it was granted to Poland.

(3) Millions of German-occupied Posen and West Prussia were separated from Germany and given to Poland. Similarly, the port of Memel was also taken away from him.

(4) An entire German port city, Danzig, was given to him to maintain the financial interests of Poland.

In other words, Germany was divided due to historical reasons in some places, the location of the population in the corners, and the fulfillment of the financial needs of the region in certain corners. Germany indeed agreed to give up part of the Pool inhabited Pool and some districts in West Prussia. But under the terms of the agreement, the entire German-occupied areas would also be ceded to Poland, that’s right. Germany also questioned the self-determination of residents of these disputed areas. He asserted that his confession had been obtained through torture and that his confession had been obtained through torture.

(5) Germany had objections to other terms of the Treaty of Versailles, namely, the terms of cash compensation. The terms of the agreement state that Germany must bear the responsibility for the loss of life and property of the victorious civilians in the war. He will also have to pay punitive compensation for France’s occupation of Belgium. Germany refused to pay cash compensation. His speech was. That is, if the conquerors forced Germany into cash compensation, the Germans would consider themselves slaves, just as Germany’s wealth would flow out.

(6) In the case of the colonies, too, Germany had considerable protests. Germany stated that it had acquired the colonies legally and had invested sufficient labor and resources to develop them. Thus the colonies are inextricably linked with their national interest. The colonies and the mainland of Germany are bound by the same economic formula. Germany wanted to rule the colonies under the rules of the proposed League of Nations. But his wishes were not given any importance.

(7) Austria, an area inhabited by German ethnic and linguistic groups, became an independent republic, and Germany was forced to abide by the boundaries of the newly formed state of Austria forever. Germany was also forced to make a commitment to this effect. But within two decades, Germany changed its borders with Austria. In other words, the victors did not accept any of Germany’s requests and demands and thus a future war was paved.

(8) Although not a condition of the treaty, Germany was not allowed to enter the proposed League of Nations. Germany demanded inclusion in the league.

After observing the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany stated that at a time when the world needed human reconciliation, those conditions were going to sow the seeds of division. As a result, it is impossible to establish lasting peace by insulting and oppressing a particular group of people. The German delegation said that the terms of the Treaty of Versailles were only for the production of violence, not for justice. In addition, they violated the terms of the arms embargo.

But the victors claimed that the terms of the treaty were based on fourteen points from US President Woodrow Wilson. Moreover, the victors considered Germany’s war effort a crime against humanity. That is, the establishment of justice is possible only when the full punishment of that crime can be given to the perpetrator.

A similar crisis was in the question of German disarmament. Disarmament applies only to Germany, not to any other state. Naturally, Germany did not take it well. They tend to be slow in disarmament as well as in compensation. That is why the problem is created for the winner as to how these two issues will be resolved. The calculation shows that no matter how hard the victors tried, most of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles could not be enforced either by signing a new treaty, or by Germany’s refusal, and above all by the expiration of the deadline. This is how many of the terms of the so-called Treaty of Versailles died out.

FAQs

Q. What were the 5 main terms of the Treaty of Versailles?

A. The surrender of all German colonies as League of Nations mandates. (2) The return of Alsace-Lorraine to France. (3) Cession of Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium, Memel to Lithuania, the Hultschin district to Czechoslovakia. (4) Poznania, parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland.

Q. What was a weakness of the Treaty of Versailles?

A. One of the biggest interpreted weaknesses was the economics and reparations. Firstly, it highlighted the weaknesses of the delegates forming the Treaty, as they had to listen to public demand which had been exaggerated due to the scale and length of the war.

Q. Who led the opposition to the Treaty of Versailles?

A. The opposition came from two groups: the “Irreconcilables,” who refused to join the League of Nations under any circumstances, and “Reservationists,” led by Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman, Henry Cabot Lodge, who was willing to ratify the treaty with amendments.

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