Malignant Cell Characteristics: A cell whose growth or division is impaired and which results in a malignant and invasive tumor is called a malignant cell or cancer cell. Normal cells are affected by stimuli or bacterial infections. Transforms into malignant cells. The control of the process of division of the malignant cell is lost and so is the cell. It tends to divide rapidly, resulting in a cluster of cells.
Thus compared to the normal division rate of cells The growth that occurs when cells divide at a very high rate is called a tumor after the formation of a tumor. Tumor cell division may stop; This type of tumor is called a benign tumor after tumor formation. When tumor cells spread to different parts of the organism and form new tumors in those areas, the tumor becomes malignant. Malignant tumor cells are called malignant tumor cells.
Malignant Cell Division
malignant cell transformation
The difference between normal cell and malignant cell growth is observed through tissue culture techniques. Normal cells divide in a certain way or control and in old age cells die. But the division of malignant cells occurs uncontrollably and the cells do not die, gaining immortality.
Differences between Benign tumor and Malignant tumor
|Benign tumors||Malignant tumor|
|1. After some time of uncontrolled cell division, cell division stops, and benign tumors are formed.||1. Uncontrolled cell division never stops and malignant tumors form.|
|2. Benign tumor cells do not spread to different parts of the body or form secondary tumors there i.e. there is no metastasis.||2. Malignant tumor cells enter different parts of the body and form secondary tumors, i.e. metastasis.|
|3. The size of benign tumors is fixed.||3. Malignant tumors do not have a specific size in the corner.|
|4. The log phase of cells is observed for a certain period of time.||4. The log phase of cells can be seen indefinitely.|
Different Phases Of Growth Of Malignant Cell
(i) Lag phase – In tissue culture, cell growth is apparently at a very low rate.
(ii) Log or Exponential phase – In this phase the cells begin to divide very rapidly.
(iii) Stationary phase – In this phase cell division and growth stop, that is, the number of cells does not change.
(iv) Death phase – In this stage the cell dies and the number of cells decreases. Four stages are seen in normal cell growth or division. But the log phase of a malignant cell lasts indefinitely, so the number of cells continues to increase and the cells gain immortality.
malignant cell characteristics
1. Malignancy – Lack of cell division control causes cells to divide rapidly as long as the host is dead. Malignant cells die when the host organism dies.
2. Anaplasia – Rapid fragmentation results in the poor overall structure of malignant cells and inadequate cell function. Inside the cells, there are not enough cells in different cells.
3. Metastasis – Metastasis is the process by which malignant cells are detached from their place of origin and carried through the blood or lymph to create new tumors in different parts of the body. Thus metastasis results from primary tumor to secondary tumor, tertiary tumor, etc.
4. Loss of adhesion -Malignant cells lose the ability to stick to a solid object or the cells do not stick to themselves and their mobility increases.
5. Loss of contact inhibition – When the malignant cells touch each other, the cell division does not stop and the cell division continues normally. The new cells are placed on top of the old cells and create a multicellular space.6. Production of new antigen – Malignant cells produce new antigens, such as carcinoma-embryonic antigen Phyto-proteins.
definition of malignant
(a) Definition of Cancer disease: The type of rage that causes the unicellular cells to divide uncontrollably, the cells to damage the surrounding tissue, and the cells to spread through the lymph or blood to different organs, is called cancer.
Tumors or tumors form in all cancers except leukemia.
Definition of Oncology the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer are called Oncology.
(b) the probability of cancer and the age at which people of any age can get cancer; But with age, the risk of getting cancer increases. 13% of all deaths are due to cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, 6 million people worldwide died of cancer in 2007.
1. A normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell. The genetic material in these mutated cells is of an abnormal nature.
2. The effects or causes of abnormal genetic factors are called carcinogens, such as smoking, radiation, chemicals, infectious substances, etc.
3. In addition, some errors during the division of genetic material or DNA can cause cancer cells with abnormal genetic material.
symptoms of cancer
There are different types of cancer from the origin, such as:
1. Carcinoma is a malignant tumor caused by carcinoma and covering cells. Different types of cancer usually belong to carcinoma, such as breast, prostate, lung, colon cancer, etc.
2. Sarcoma: Malignant tumor caused by connective tissue or mesenchymal cells is called sarcoma.
3. Lymphoma or Leukemia: The malignancy of hematopoietic cells or blood-producing cells is called lymphoma or leukemia.
4. Germ cell tumors and tumors caused by totipotent cells are called germ cell tumors.
5. Blastic tumor or blastoma (Blastic tumor or blastoma): A tumor caused by an immature lime collar is called a blastic tumor or blastoma.
Symptoms of Cancer disease
In general, the symptoms of cancer can be divided into three categories, e.g.
1. Local symptoms; Abnormal swollen lump formation, bleeding, pain, and sores. Jaundice can be caused by pressure on the surrounding tissue.
2. Symptoms of metastasis: Lymph nodes are enlarged, cough, enlarged liver, osteoporosis, etc.
3. Systemic symptoms: Weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, thrombosis, and hormonal changes.
Mechanism of Cancer formation: There are three main strategies. Cancer causes anger. In all cases, normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. The different causes of cancer are as follows-
1. Activation of oncogene: Oncogene is inactivated in the genome of the organism and remains in the form of a proto-oncogene. The inactive proto-oncogene is converted to an active oncogene by the effect of carcinogenic stimulation. The cell with the active oncogene in this condition is called a cancer cell or malignant cell. This cancer cell divides uncontrollably and causes cancer.
2. Inactivation of Tumor suppressor gene: In the genome of an organism normal function of some of the existing genes is to inhibit the formation of tumors at any angle, meaning that tumors are not formed as a result of the activation of these genes. These genes that interfere with tumor formation are called tumor suppressor genes. When the carcinogenic substance in the corner or the stimulus in the corner inactivates the tumor suppressor gene, the tumor is formed and cancerous growth occurs.
3. Infection of a normal cell to an Oncogene(carrying virus) and in some places the virus carries an oncogene. This oncogene in the virus is called “V-onc” (Viral Oncogene: Viral Oncogene). Infection of the virus in normal cells results in the genome of the “V-onc” cell being transformed into “cellular oncogene” or “c-onc”.
Abnormal features of cancer cell
A normal cell is transformed into a cancer cell. Cancer cells have a variety of abnormalities. These traits can be divided into three main categories, viz., Cellular, genetic and physiological.
1. The nucleus and nucleolus are enlarged.
2. The number of mitochondria decreases and the number of Christie’s decreases.
3. Polysemy formation is seen in large quantities.
4. The number of intercellular junctions in the cell membrane decreases.
5. The ability of cells to stay connected to each other is lost.
6. The dividing power of cells increases exponentially.
7. The chromosomes in the cells of leukemia are abnormally shaped and the chromatids are not clear.
8. The cytoskeleton of cancer cells is reduced or disorganized.
- DNA synthesis and repair work is flawed.
- Different types of chromosomal abnormalities are found in cancer cells, such as (i) Translation: Myeloid leukemia (ii) Duplication: Lymphoma(iii) Dilution-retinoblastoma(iv) aneuploid (2n – 1) meningioma tumor cells(v) Trisemia (2n + 1) myloid leukemia.
- Inclusion of external genes is observed. Gene mutations are seen in cancer cells.
1. The use of glucose in the cell is multiplied and the amount of lactic acid in the cell increases as a result of anaerobic respiration.
2. Proteolytic enzymes are produced in large quantities.
3. Cancer cells produce large amounts of plasmin. This plasmin destroys the outer surface of the cell membrane, resulting in cell inhibition.
4. Oncogenes produce tumor antigens such as CEA, AFP, GEP, and normal antigen production. Is disrupted.
5. Normal hormonal control is lost.
6. The number of CAMP decreases.
7. The pH value decreases.
8. The amount of bio-water increases.
9. The concentration of low Ca2 + ions and high K + ions increases.
What is Op Neoplasm?
Abnormally growing cells or tumors divided into uncontrolled levels are called neoplasms. The neoplasm that does not have metastasis is called benign and the neoplasm that does not have metastasis is called malignant neoplasm.
What is Leukemia?
When the production of white blood cells increases too much, the severe rage that occurs in the body with immature white blood cells is called leukemia or blood cancer.
What is Co Oncogene?
The gene that activates a normal cell to turn into a cancer cell is called an oncogene.
What are Hela cells?
Hela cells are specialized cells of the human aneuploidy strain whose source is the cancer cells of the cervix of a female named Henrietta Lacks. Henrietta Lac died of cancer in 1951, but her body cells are being kept in laboratories around the world.
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