Andes Mountains Facts: An Amazing Wonder Of Nature, Climate, Mineral Resources, Plants, Animals And More

Andes Mountains Facts | Where Andes Mountains Located | Andes Mountains Climate | Andes Mountains Animals | Andes Mountains Continent |

Andes Mountains Facts

The western border of South America. The Andes Mountains are a natural shield along the entire border. Due to its coastal location in the Pacific Ocean and the geographical location of South America, the Andes have developed land of natural diversity, which makes it unique and extraordinary. In addition, a wonderful combination of biodiversity and flora is found throughout the region.

Andes Mountains Facts

This is where the Inca civilization developed. There are also various cities and places of interest. In today’s article, we will learn about this amazing wonder of nature.

Where Andes Mountains Located

Where Andes Mountains Located

The Andes Mountains in South America are the longest continental mountains in the world. It is about 7,000 km long and 200 to 700 km wide depending on the place. Its average height is about 4,000 meters. There is much debate about the origin of the name ‘Andes’. According to most, it comes from the Quechua word ‘Anti’, meaning ‘East’. This continental mountain extends to seven countries in South America. The countries are Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.

The Andes Mountains are divided into three parts.

1) North Andes: This part falls in these three countries Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador.

2) Middle Andes: Peru and Bolivia.

3) South Andes: Argentina and Chile have this part.

Andes Mountains

Andes Mountains Facts

Outside of Asia, the Andes is the highest mountain in the world, except for the Himalayas. And here is Aconcagua, the highest mountain outside Asia. It has an elevation of about 6,961 meters above sea level. This peak is located in Mendoza, Argentina. The highest volcanoes in the world are also located here. Ojos del Salado, the world’s highest volcano, is located on the border of Chile and Argentina; Its height is 6,893 meters. Andijei is home to Lake Titicaca, the highest lake in the world, located on the border of Peru and Bolivia.

Its water is clear and there are human settlements here. Different types of navigation are also done here. Among them, a type of reed boat is used locally.

Andes Mountains
Andes Mountains

There are also some high plateaus. The Altiplano Plateau in the Andes is the second-highest plateau in the world after the Pamir Plateau in Tibet. Some of the major cities located on these plateaus are Quito, Bogota, Cali, Arequipa, Medellin, Bucaramanga, Sucre, Merida, La Paz. Cotopaxi, the highest active volcano in the world, is located in the Andes Mountains. However, due to equatorial inflation, the farthest peak from the center of the earth is the peak of the Chimborazo volcano in Ecuador. There are also many active volcanoes.

Andes Mountains Climate

To the west of the Andes is the Atacama Desert, which is extremely dry, rainless but cool. It is located north of Chile and extends to the southern border of Peru. It is also considered to be the driest place on earth. It has an average temperature of 18 degrees Celsius and an average annual rainfall of only 15 millimeters.

The Amazon is the largest and second longest river in the world. It originates from the Nevada Mismi peak in the Andes Mountains of Peru. It also originates from the Orinako Andes, another major river in South America.

The Andes is not a single mountain. It consists of many mountain ranges. That is why it is called mountains. It is thought to have formed during the breakup of Pangea, the largest continent in the Triassic-Jurassic period. The collision of the tectonic plates of the earth resulted in the formation of today’s Andes. It is thought to have formed about 50 million years ago. The Andes were formed by the collision of the tectonic plates of South America and the Pacific Ocean, known as the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic Plate.

However, this process is still ongoing. Another piece of information about the Andes is that it is also part of the American Cordillera mountain range. There are many mountain ranges in this part. And the Andes act as the backbone of this chain, namely North America, Central America, and South America. In addition, Caribbean islands in the Atlantic Ocean, such as Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, and the submerged peaks of the Andes.

Mineral Resources (Andes Mountains Continent)

The Andes Mountains are rich in ore and salt. There are also reserves of commercially usable hydrocarbons. At the head of the Atacama Desert are copper reserves, which have made Chile and Peru the first and second-largest exporters of copper, respectively.

There is also a huge treasure of gold. Peru has the fourth largest gold mine in the world. Peru’s Yanacocha is one of the largest gold mines in the world.

Andes Mountains Continent

About 45 percent of the world’s copper and 30 percent of silver come from the Andes mines. Also lead and zinc is available. Bolivia has Salar de Uni, the world’s largest saline plain. So it looks like a huge mirror.

Andes Mountains Climate

As it spreads over the whole of South America, different climates are observed in different parts of it. The Andes Mountains are divided into three parts based on the continental climate. Tropical Andes, dry Andes, and the humid Andes.

The climate in the South Andes is cold and rainy. The climate in Central Andes is dry again. The climate of the North Andes is rainy and warm. In the south of the Andes, on the border of Chile and Argentina, there are tropical glaciers, which account for about 95% of the world’s tropical glaciers. But sadly, due to global warming, the glaciers are melting faster.

The climate in the Andes changes within a few kilometers. For example, a few kilometers after the snow-capped Cotopex is a green-covered rainforest. This diversity of climates has given the Andes a unique dimension.


Natural forests and a variety of trees and flowering trees have sprung up in different parts of the Andes Mountains. The reason for this is that it extends from Venezuela in the Caribbean region in the north of South America to the cold, wet, and windy region of the south, to Cape Horn; Which includes the extremely arid region of the Atacama Desert.

There are over 30,000 species of vascular plants (ferns, conifers, and various flowering plants) and half of them are native to the region. Besides, tobacco and potatoes are also available here. At 4,500 m above sea level are found the forests of Polylipis and some forests, locally known as Kuia, Yagual, etc. The wood of these forests has been cut down since the time of the Inca civilization and this work is still going on. Currently, the deforestation work here has been accelerated. As a result, many plants are now endangered. It is estimated that only 10 percent of the original forest remains.

Agriculture has been practiced in the Andes Mountains for almost 6,000 years. The Incas were also involved in agriculture. Crops were cultivated through irrigation by taking steps like steps on the hill. The main crop was potatoes. Besides, maize was also cultivated. At present, tomatoes, tobacco, cotton, and coffee are the main export products. Coca is also cultivated, from which cocaine is made. This coca leaf is chewed to relieve physical problems and fatigue due to hill height. This leaf is also popular in these areas as herbal tea.

Andes Mountains Animals

Due to the biodiversity, there is a combination of different animals as well as plants. About two-thirds of the nearly 1,000 species of amphibians are endemic. The Andes is an important region for amphibians on Earth. In addition, there are about 600 species of mammals, 13 percent of which are endemic; There are more than 1700 species of birds, about 33 percent of which are endemic; There are more than 600 species of reptiles, 33 percent of which are endemic and about 400 species of fish, of which 33 percent are endemic.

There are some special animals of the camel family, such as Vicuna, Guanaco; Which are found on the Altiplano Plateau. The locals also keep llamas and alpacas for meat and wool.

Andes Mountains

Chinchillas, an endangered species of rat, live in the Alpine region of the Andes. They are seen in the morning and evening. The Andean condor, the largest bird in the western hemisphere, lives in the Andes. However, their number is also decreasing.

In addition to these animals, hummus, cougar, Aandian fox, Aandian puma, Aandian armadillo (hairy or hairy armadillo) can be seen here. Sierra Finch and Yuka Finch.

There are also some endemic animals of Lake Titicaca, such as Titicaca Grave, which is unable to fly, Titicaca frogs, some species of hummingbirds, such as Hillstar, which can be seen at an altitude of about 4,000 meters.

Notable among the birds of the moist Andean forest are: Mountain Token, Quetzal, Andean Cock of the Rock. It is the national bird of Peru.

Andes Mountains

Other mammals include the Mountain Tapir, the Andean bear, and the yellow-tailed woolly monkey. But they are now under threat.

Human settlement and activities

All the diverse cultures have developed from north to south of the Andes Mountains. From the Inca civilization to the present, various cultures have flourished and developed. Many roads built by the Incas are still visible in the Middle Andes. Some of the oldest civilizations in the world developed in the Andes. Notable among these is the Inca civilization, which developed in the Cusco region south of the Andes. The Machu Picchu Pyramids, built by the Incas, still stand on a peak in the Andes, northwest of the city of Cusco.

Andes Mountains

Also, Peru’s Chachapois and Nazca; Tiwanaku in Peru, Bolivia, and Chile; These canaries of Ecuador also made important contributions.

The arrival of various European occupiers and merchants led to the spread of various diseases among the people of these areas, resulting in many deaths. In addition, many died due to the civil war.

Currently, Kichua and Aymara are among the languages ​​of the Andeans. There are various roads, highways, and railways for communication between different countries located in the Andes. Many cities have developed in the Andes. The largest of these is Lima, the capital of Peru on the Pacific coast. There is also Bogota, Colombia, with a population of about 6 million; There is Santiago, Medellin, Ink. The capital of Bolivia, La Paz, is the tallest city in the world, at an altitude of about 3,650 meters above sea level.

Also Argentina’s San Juan, Mendoza, Salta and Katamarka; Calama and Rankagua in Chile; Bolivia’s Auroro, Potosi and Sakaba; Huars, Cuzco and Puno in Peru; Ambato, Quito, Loja in Ecuador; Colombia Armenia, Bucaramanga, Palmyra; Merida and La Greta in Venezuela are some of these cities.

Tourists from home and abroad come here to enjoy the natural beauty of the Andes. Mountaineering, hiking, rafting, cycling, skiing (snow skiing), stargazing (star watching) are some of the leisure activities here.

Andes Mountains

The Andes Mountains are an infinite creation in the heart of the earth. The beauty of the Andes adds a new dimension to nature. So its form and variety will undoubtedly impress anyone.

Andes Mountains Facts


Q. How old is the Andes?

A. 50 million years old.

Q. Why do earthquakes occur in the Andes?

A. Earthquakes are common in the Andes Mountains because they are near the boundary of two tectonic plates.

Q. What is the relationship between altitude and climate in the Andes? 

A. The higher the altitude the cooler the temperature. Also, the oxygen is thin.

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